Welcome to the Carlisle and Stanwix Branch of The Royal British Legion
GRID REF: NY 39743 58460 Postcode CA3 0AT
SCOTLAND ROAD, Carlisle
The memorial is a small sandstone structure supporting an inscribed plaque. It is located at the junction of two roads in the cemetery and is set on a tiered sandstone flag base.
This public cemetery is administered by Carlisle City Council. It has a Memorial to the Fallen of both wars set in a prominent place at the end of the approach road. There are the graves of 24 identified casualties here, of both The Great War and WW2, whose graves are marked by either CWGC or private family headstones. There are also references on family graves to those buried or commemorated on the battlefields.
THOSE COMMEMORATED ON STANWIX CEMETERY WAR MEMORIAL
Ordinary Seaman George Armstrong, of the Royal Naval Volunteer Reserve, R.N. Depot (Crystal Palace), died of pneumonia at Norwood Cottage Hospital, London, on 4th May 1918, at the age of 18, and is interred in Stanwix Cemetery. George, who had joined the naval forces, as a wireless recruit, as recently as 8th April 1918, was the son of George, an engine driver for the Caledonian Railway Company, and Annie Armstrong of 10 Strawberry Terrace, Stanwix. Prior to joining the forces he was employed as a clerk in the offices of Courtenay Hodgson, solicitor, Carlisle.
Petty Officer John Armstrong, of the Royal Naval Volunteer Reserve, Anson Battalion Royal Naval Division, elder brother of George, was killed in action on 28th April 1917, aged 19, and is commemorated on the Arras Memorial. Before joining the services he was serving his time as an electrician with the Carlisle Tramway Company. In his service record his religion is given as Congregational and his date of birth as 30th May 1896. In a letter to his family an officer wrote that: ‘We had to advance under heavy machine gun fire and your son never hesitated, he set a magnificent example to his men and his loss will be felt, not only by each of us personally, but by the company itself. His loss was a great blow to me and all his friends, especially, as his work was always good and it will be difficult to find as good a man to replace him…’
Private Alexander Black, of the 7th Battalion, Border Regiment died, of wounds received on 25 November 1917, at the age of 19 and is buried in Mendinghem Military Cemetery, Belgium. Alexander, who was born in Lochmaben, was formerly of the Cumberland and Westmorland Yeomanry. He was the eldest son of James, a railway worker, and Maggie Black of 25 Caledonian Buildings, Etterby Road, Carlisle.
Corporal Henry [Harry] James Robinson Bolt, of the Army Service Corps, 402 Motor Transport Company, died in hospital in Liverpool, on 13th January 1918, of wounds received in action near Arras, on the previous day, and is interred at Carlisle Cemetery. He was 47 years old. Harry Bolt was born in Terregles, Dumfrieshire, on 1st September 1870, the son of John, a gardener, and Wilhelmina Bolt, who at the time of their deaths, in 1891 and 1892 respectively, were living at Knowe Cottage, Stanwix. He trained as a teacher at St Hild and St Bede College, Durham and is commemorated on the war memorial in the grounds of the college. At the time he enlisted, early in the war, he was assistant master at Lowther Street boy’s school, Carlisle. He married Jane Firth in the autumn of 1898 and they set up home at 14 Etterby Street, Stanwix. At the time of the 1911 census they had two children. According to his obituary in the Cumberland News, he was keen on athletics and in his youth was a ‘frequent competitor in the local cycling races’. He was secretary of the Carlisle teacher’s tennis club at Edenside, a Freemason and also involved with the Stanwix Church choir.
Second Lieutenant Anthony Harvey Bowman, of the 37th Battery Royal Field Artillery, died from wounds on 20th May 1916, aged 24, and is buried in Habarcq Communal Cemetery Extension, Pas de Calais. He was the son of Anthony Nichol, a partner in Mounsey, Bowman and Graham solicitors and Registrar of the Diocese of Carlisle, and Laura Phoebe Bowman of Eden House, Stanwix. Anthony, who was born on 10th November 1891, was educated at Mrs Crosthwaite’s School, at Lime House, Wetheral and Winchester College. After leaving Winchester in 1910 he was articled to his father’s firm and at the same time he also joined the first Cumberland Howitzer Battery, in which he held the rank of Captain at the outbreak of war. He was with the Battery in the Dardanelles but was invalided home with jaundice. On his recovery he joined the Royal Field Artillery, with the rank of Second Lieutenant and was transferred to France early in 1916. He married Prudence Bolton on 20 August 1914 and they had a daughter. He is commemorated by a stained glass panel, in St Catherine’s Chapel, Carlisle Cathedral, by the distinguished stained glass designer Veronica Whall (1887-1967). The panel, which was installed in 1926, depicts the Nativity and the Crucifixion and includes the words ‘To the Glory of God and in loving memory of the Anthony Harvey Bowman, 2nd lieut. R.F.A., elder son of Anthony Nichol Bowman/Registrar of the Diocese of Carlisle and Laura Phoebe his wife, who fell in action near Arras, May 20th 1916, aged 24’.
Private Garnet Raven Briggs, of the 1st Battalion Border Regiment, was killed in action on 28th August 1918, aged 23 years, and is commemorated on the Ploegstreert Memorial, Hainaut, Belgium. He was the third surviving son of the late William and Catherine Briggs of Scotland Road, Stanwix. Garnet, who had been in business as a butcher, in Stanwix, enlisted on 3rd August 1917 and joined his battalion in the field on 21st April 1918. A colleague in a letter to Mrs Briggs included the words: ‘Garnet was cheerful to the last minute. It was his own wish to stay among the lads. He had got wounded in the arm and could have got away at first but he stayed until it was too late’.
Corporal Thomas Harrison Briggs, the brother of Garnet, of “A” Company, Royal IrishFusiliers, 9th (North Irish Horse Battalion), formerly Army Veterinary Corps died on 25th October 1918, aged 31 -so Mrs Briggs had lost two sons within the course of two months- and is buried in Harlebeke New British Cemetery, West-Vlaanderen, Belgium. Like his brother he was a butcher, probably working with him. Thomas enlisted, at Carlisle, with the 18th Hussars on 5th October 1908 but served less than three months. He re-enlisted at Woolwich on 16 June 1915. A letter in his service record, dated 5th June 1916 from J. N. Hewson includes the following: ‘I have great pleasure in certifying to the character of Mr T.H. Briggs, Scotland Road… who I understand has joined the Army Veterinary Corps. I have known him for several years as a competent horseman with a good knowledge of the management of such horses. Thomas reached the rank of Acting Corporal but shortly after his transfer to the Royal Irish Fusiliers in May 1918 reverted to the rank of Private at his own request. It is noted that the CWGC gives his mother’s address as 10 Cheviot Road rather than Scotland Road. It may be that she moved at about that time.
Lance Corporal Irving James Brough, of the 8th Battalion Border Regiment, died from wounds received in the previous October, on the Somme front, at the First Canadian hospital, on 4 February 1917, aged 25, and is buried in Etaples Military Cemetery, Pas de Calais. Irving, who was the only son of Mrs Mary Brough of Rosebery Road, Stanwix, and the late William Brough of Warwick and husband of Mary née Batey, of 15 Warwick Road, Carlisle, was employed as a grocer with the firm of Little and Johnson, English Street, Carlisle.
2nd Corporal John Campbell, of the Royal Engineers, 4th Broad Gauge Operating Company, was accidentally drowned in France on 15 June 1919, at the age of 31, and is buried at Terlincthun British Cemetery, Wimille, Pas de Calais. John, who was described as a railway engine cleaner in the 1911 census, was the youngest son of the late John, a railway permanent way inspector, and the late Janet Russell Campbell, formerly of 1 Caledonian Buildings, and husband of Hannah Campbell of 15 Kells Place, Stanwix, Carlisle.
Lance Corporal Charles Clarke, of the 2nd Battalion, Border Regiment, was killed in action on 26th February 1917, aged 29, and is commemorated on the Thiepval Memorial, Somme, France. He was born in Bermondsey, the son of the late James and Priscilla Clarke. Prior to joining the army he was engaged as a chef at the Chadwick Memorial School, now Austin Friars. In 1911 he married Catherine Kenyon a young widow with two children who, at the time of his death, was living at 15 Eden Place, Stanwix.
Second Lieutenant Allan George Condi, of the 5th Battalion, Border Regiment, was killed in action near Eaucourt L’Abbaye on 1st October 1916, aged 20, and is buried at Adanac Military Hospital Cemetery, Miraumont, Somme, France. Allan, who was born in Eddington, Kent, on 17th August 1896, was the only son of the late Frederick Condi of Corfu, and Edith Condi of 11 Mulcaster Crescent, Stanwix, daughter of the late Thomas Henry Allan of Madras. He was educated at St Bees School where, in the 1911 census, his name is listed four names down from William Leefe Robinson, who was awarded the Victoria Cross for shooting down a German airship, over London, in 1916. After leaving school, in 1914, Allan was articled as a solicitor to his cousin, C.W. Allan Hodgson, Clerk of the Committees to the Cumberland County Council. He was gazetted Second Lieutenant on 7th September and was sent to the front in February 1916. In a letter to his mother his commanding officer wrote: - ‘He was gallantly leading his men in an attack on the German trenches, and far as I have been able to ascertain he was killed outright, and therefore would not suffer at all’.
Private Fred Albert Cooper, private 1st class, Royal Air Force, 45th Battalion Section, died on 6 July 1918, of wounds received on 5 July, at the age of 37, and was buried in the St Hilaire Cemetery Extension, Frevent, Pas de Calais. He was born in Reigate, in 1881, the son of William Cooper, domestic gardener and his wife Sara. Some time before the 1911 census, at which time he was working as a manager of a fruit and flower shop, Fred, his wife Nelly and their young family moved to Carlisle from Reigate and Redhill becoming members of the Warwick Road Presbyterian Church on 28 July 1911. He enlisted on 11 April 1917. At the time of his death Fred, Nelly and his family were living at 24 Thornton Road, Stanwix; he is also commemorated on the War Memorial in St George’s United Reformed Church, Warwick Road, Carlisle.
Private Herbert Cooper, of the King’s (Liverpool Regiment), 1st/10th Scottish Battalion, was confirmed as having been killed in action on 16th June 1915, having been missing for some time, and is commemorated on the Ypres (Menin Gate) Memorial. Herbert was a native of Carlisle and was the grandson of the late Mr Hutton, builder, and Margaret Hutton of 8 Eden Terrace, Carlisle. He was a journalist by profession and before moving to Liverpool where he was employed on the Liverpool staff of the Daily Dispatch he had held journalistic appointments at Carlisle and Newcastle. At the time of his enlistment, on 29th April 1914, he was living at 8 Highfield Road, Rock Ferry, Cheshire. He was with the British Expeditionary Force in France from 23 January 1915 until his death. In an article, the Cumberland News of 4th September 1915 includes the following: ‘It appears that Private Cooper’s body was found by a member of the 4th Middlesex sniper company, and his identity was established by means of a photograph of some of his Carlisle relatives found in his possession, and which was forwarded by the finder to the photographer in South Shields, with a request that he would endeavour to communicate with the relatives’.
Private Fred Davidson, of the 5th Battalion Border Regiment, was killed in action on 31st July 1916, aged 20, and is buried at Dranoutre Military Cemetery, Belgium. Fred was the son of Harriet Davidson of 21 Collingwood Street and the late John Davidson formerly of Dukes Lodge, Etterby Street, Stanwix, where he was overseer of the Duke’s grounds. At the time Fred joined the army he was serving his time at Messrs Martindale, drapers, English Street, Carlisle. In a letter to his mother his captain wrote: ‘Your son was sniped yesterday evening and fell at my feet as I was passing through the trench. He did not suffer as death was practically instantaneous. Though I had not known him long I had begun to recognise his outstanding merit and among the men of his platoon he was deservedly popular…’.
Private George Burgess Davidson, of the 6th Battalion, Border Regiment, was killed in action on 7th June 1917, aged 18 and is commemorated on the Ypres (Menin gate) Memorial. George was a brother of Fred and youngest son of Harriet and the late John Davidson.
Trooper Robert Davis, of the Westmorland and Cumberland Yeomanry, died of wounds at Curragh Camp Hospital on 17th January 1916, aged 25, and is interred in Stanwix Cemetery, Carlisle. He was the third son of John Thomas Davis of 8 Strawberry Terrace, Edentown, Stanwix and the late Martha. At the time of the 1911 census he was employed as an ironmonger’s clerk. In the official deaths in service record he was described as of the Household Cavalry and Cavalry of the line (inc. yeomanry and Imperial Camel Corps), Westmorland and Cumberland Hussars. His birthplace was given as Carlisle but his place of enlistment as Penrith.
Corporal William Davis was the brother of Robert and he is buried in the family plot in Stanwix Cemetery. He is not included in the CWGC records among the war dead. In the Grave Registration Report Form on the website his details were included but have been crossed out in red; the reason given that the grave is ‘not a war grave’. According to the report form he was serving with the 1st Volunteer Battalion, Border regiment and he died on 25 November 1918. However, according to the death notice in the Cumberland News dated 30 November 1918 he died at home at 8 Strawberry Terrace on 22 November 1918 the son of John T. and the late Martha Davis at the age of 31. In the thanks for sympathy column in the same newspaper ‘Mr John T. Davis and family, Edentown, desire to thank all friends, neighbours and the members of the Volunteer Corps for their kind expressions of sympathy. [Further information is required to complete this entry].
Gunner Robert Harrington Deighton, of the Royal Garrison Artillery, 26th Heavy Battery, died, at a field ambulance station, from wounds received in action on 14th October 1918, aged 39, and is buried at Ypres Reservoir Cemetery. He was the younger son of the late Edward and Elizabeth Deighton of Currock. He had been in business as a gentlemen’s outfitter in the Lowther Arcade for a number of years but, at the time of his enlistment under the Derby scheme in 1915, he was described in his service record as being employed as a commercial traveller. He married Mary Isabel Bell at Stanwix on 7 June 1911 and they set up home at 3 Stanwix Bank but do not appear to have had any family. Robert was a Freemason, an excellent swimmer, winning prizes in competitions in Carlisle and Talkin Tarn, one of the founders of an athletic school In Carlisle and a much esteemed member of Stanwix Bowling Club.
The three Dixon brothers, who died during the war, were three of the nine children born to John and Mary Elizabeth Horn Dixon. The family came from a farming background and at the time of the 1901 census John was farming at Westmoor, Stainton. However, in the 1911 census, by which time the family were living at 74 Etterby Street, his occupation was given as Teacher of Agriculture at an industrial school. Sometime after 1911 the family must have moved to 6 Strawberry Terrace, Edentown, because that was place of residence given in the notices, in the Cumberland News, of the deaths of each of the three brothers.
Lance Corporal James Simpson Dixon, of the Cumberland and Westmorland Yeomanry, died at home on 21 February 1916, at the age of 22, and is buried in Dalston Road Cemetery, Carlisle. He was the second son of John and Mary. Before enlisting, on 11 November 1914, James was a plumber and electrician. On 16 January 1915 he was appointed Lance Corporal but, on 1 August 1915, he was discharged from the army on health grounds having being diagnosed with tuberculosis of the spine. According to his service record he had contracted his illness ‘in civil life on a date unknown’.
Private John Dixon, of the 10th Battalion Canadian Infantry, the eldest son of John and Mary was killed in action on 9 April 1917, during the attack on Vimy Ridge, aged 27, and is commemorated on the Vimy Memorial, Pas de Calais. An article in the Cumberland News of 8 September 1917 provided the following information:
‘He was a sniper in a Canadian Regiment, and his death was reported in April. He was killed through a shell bursting where he was resting. He finished his education at Carlisle Grammar School, and afterwards became an assistant teacher at Stanwix, where he was also a Sunday school teacher and Church worker. He went to Canada in 1913, leaving the training schools there to join the colours in 1915. He was a well known player in local football having played for St Ann’ Rovers for four seasons, scoring over a hundred goals for them. He was a great favourite with his club mates and friends in other circles’.
The web site calgaryhighanders.com refers to the assault on Vimy Ridge being delayed a day until 9th April and continues, ‘The killing began a few minutes before zero hour when a random German shell ended one person’s life, and four other troops were hit along with him, still waiting for whistles’. This information appears to equate with the description, of how John died, in the Cumberland News article.
A more detailed description of John’s life can be found in the book by Linda Hodgson and Sarah Lee, The Stars of Night (Carlisle, 2014), p37.
Private Thomas Dixon, of the 1st Battalion Border Regiment, died in hospital in France, of wounds received in action, on 14 April 1918, at the age of 19, and is buried in Aire Communal Cemetery, Pas de Calais. Before the war he was employed in the office of Messrs Blackburn and Main, solicitors, Carlisle. A brief article in Cumberland News 27 April 1918 closes with the following words: ‘This is the third of Mr Dixon’s sons who had laid down his life for his country’.
Captain Charles Bertram Dove, of the 3rd Battalion Border Regiment attached to the 8th Battalion Border Regiment, was killed in action on 21st March 1918, aged 33, and is buried in Favreuil British Cemetery, Pas de Calais. Charles was the eldest son of John Charles Dove, who was joint managing director of Cowans Sheldon with his father George Dove from 1889-1906 and sole managing director from then until 1922. After leaving school, Charles, who was educated at Carlisle Grammar School and Sedbergh, joined the regular army with the 3rd Border Regiment but subsequently resigned and took up an engineering apprenticeship with the London and North West Railway Engineering Works at Crewe. In about 1906 he emigrated to Canada, where, on 27th October 1914, he married Amy Caton Thompson at York, Ontario. Amy was one of the daughters of the chief of the electrical department of the London and North Western Railway. Soon after, he returned home and enlisted with his former Battalion with his former rank of Lieutenant and proceeded to France on Christmas Eve 1914. He had one daughter. For a more detailed description see The Stars of Night, p44.
Able Seaman James Duncan, of the Royal Naval Volunteer Reserve, was killed in action, in naval operations, during the Gallipoli campaign, on 8 May 1915, aged 15. He is commemorated on the Helles Memorial. James was the third son of James, a nurseryman, and Jean Duncan of Knowefield Cottage, Stanwix. At the time of his death he was serving with the Howe Battalion, 2nd Royal Naval Division at the second battle of Kirithia. Accompanying intimation from the Admiralty, notifying his father that James had been killed, was a letter in the name of Winston Churchill. The letter included the following words: ‘The King commands me to assure you of the true sympathy of his Majesty and the Queen in your sorrow. Three years ago, it will be recalled, the deceased saved the life of John Oliver and attempted to save the life of George Graham, who was drowned while bathing at Cargo. He received the testimonial on parchment of the Royal Humane Society in recognition of his gallantry’. It is worth noting that he was 12 years old at the time. A memorial service was held in Stanwix Church where he had been a member of the Boys Brigade and the Boy Scouts.
Private Joseph Elliott, of the 7 Battalion Border Regiment, formerly of the Westmorland and Cumberland Yeomanry, was killed in action on 18th September 1918, aged 21. He is commemorated on the Vis-en-Artois Memorial, Pas de Calais. Joseph, who, at the time he enlisted with the Westmorland and Cumberland Yeomanry, in February 1914, was a cleaner with the North Eastern Railway Company, was the second son of Parker, a carter, and Mary Elliott of 1 Creighton Court, Garden Street, Edentown. He was transferred to the expeditionary force in France in the autumn of 1914 and in August 1916 he was appointed Regimental Signalman. In September 1917 he was transferred to the 7th Westmorland and Cumberland, Border Regiment at Etaples.
Private William Gordon Forbes, of the 12th Battalion Royal Scottish Fusiliers, died from gas poisoning and pneumonia on 2 July 1918, aged 33, and is buried in Bleue-Maison Military Cemetery, Eperlecques, Pas de Calais. He was the eldest son, and one of seven children, of William, a station policeman, and Mary Forbes of Etterby Lodge, Carlisle. At that time Etterby Lodge was a ten roomed house. It is situated at the foot of Etterby Road, on the left, next to where the path runs down to Etterby wath on the river Eden.
Private Thomas Donald Forbes was the brother of William Gordon Forbes and second son of William and Mary Forbes. He served in the 5th Battalion, Border Regiment and was killed in action on Sunday 23 July 1916, aged 24. He is buried at Dranoutre Military Cemetery, Belgium. Prior to enlisting, at Kendal, he was a clerk in a flour mill.
Private John William Graham, of the 1st Battalion the Border Regiment, died of wounds at a clearing station abroad on 19th July 1918 and is buried in Longuenesse (St Omer) Louvenir Cemetery, Pas de Calais. John, who was 21 years old, was the son of Josephine Smith (formerly Graham) of 76 Corporation Road, Carlisle, and the late William Graham, Etterby, Stanwix.
Private Robert (Bertie) Hall, of the 11th Battalion of the Border Regiment, was killed in action, aged 24, on 18 November 1916, and is buried in the Waggon Road Cemetery, Beaumont-Hamel, Somme, France. Robert was the son of Robert, the owner of St Ann’s nurseries, and Maggie Hall and brother of Percy James. At the time of the 1911 census he was assisting his father in the nursery.
Private Robert Wallace Ireland, of the 2nd Battalion Gordon Highlanders, was killed in action on 6 September 1916, aged 22, and is commemorated on the Thiepval Memorial, Somme, France. Robert, who was a farm servant at Gelt House, Hayton, near Brampton, when he enlisted at Aberdeen, was the son of Margaret and the late Robert Ireland of 1 Garden Street, Edentown, Stanwix. He had been reported missing for several months before his death was confirmed.
Lieutenant Colonel Archibald Hugh James, of the 8th Battalion Northumberland Fusiliers, attached to 8th Battalion West Yorkshire Regiment (Prince of Wales Own) D.S.O., was killed in action on 26 March 1918, aged 24, and is buried in the Bienvillers Military Cemetery, Pas de Calais. He was the son of the late William Edward Ashton and Emily James, of Barrock Park, west of the A6 about six miles south of Carlisle. [This entry is yet to be completed]
Private David James, of the 6th Battalion Border Regiment, was killed in action on 23 August 1917, aged 26. He is buried in Cement House Cemetery, Langermark-Poelkappelle, West-V, Belgium. David, who had been a farm labourer before he enlisted, on 16 November 1914, was the son of the late William, a labourer, and Margaret James of 28 Eden Street, Stanwix. He married Ella Blaylock at Irthington Parish Church on 20 February 1914 and they had one daughter Margaret Naomi. At the time of his death they were living at 2 Gladson Court, Edentown, Stanwix. Earlier in the war, on 1 July 1916, he received gunshot wounds in the thigh and right foot and was transferred to Queen Mary’s Military Hospital, Whalley, Lancashire, where he stayed for just over a month. By December 1920 Ella had remarried and was living at Oak Bank Cottage, Longtown.
Lance Corporal Robert Johnston, of the 14th Battalion, Argyll and Sutherland Highlanders, died of wounds on 28 March 1918, aged 24. He is buried in Etaples Military Cemetery, Pas de Calais. Robert was the son of Andrew, an engine driver, and Janet Johnston of 46 Edentown, Carlisle. He had enlisted on 9 September 1914 and had been twice wounded firstly in August 1916 and secondly in early November 1916 only three weeks after he had returned to the front. The following details are from an obituary in the Cumberland News of 13 April 1918:
He was [previously] wounded twice, receiving the fatal wound, in the thigh, in the big German offensive…. As an engineer at the Hyde Park Works, Glasgow, he was greatly respected. He was an ardent Wesleyan Mission worker with untiring zeal. His parents have received a copy of the memorial service held in Glasgow, where there was an exceptional gathering of his many friends…. A well attended memorial service was held at the Wesleyan Mission Hall, Stanwix [30 Etterby Street], where Corporal Johnston resided when at home, having conducted services prior to his departure again overseas over seven weeks ago.
He was survived by his parents his two brothers, Hugh and John, and his sister, Florence Victoria. There is a photograph of Robert Johnston in the Cumberland News of 18 November 1916.
Private Thomas Johnston, of the 1st/5th Battalion Argyll and Sutherland Highlanders, died of wounds on 7 September 1915, aged 18. He is buried at Port Said War Memorial Cemetery K7, Egypt. According to the Commonwealth War Graves website he was the son of William Johnston, of Johannesburg, South Africa a native of Carlisle. At the time of the 1911 census he was living with his mother and two siblings at 13 St Martin’s Lane, Stanwix. However, in the death notice in the Cumberland News, he is described as the beloved nephew of Mr and Mrs Strong of Stanwix.
Gunner Charles Reeves Liddell M.M., of ‘D’ Battery, 210th B.D.E., Royal Field Artillery, was killed in action on 21 April 1918, aged 26 and is buried in Bienvillers Military Cemetery, Pas de Calais. He was the elder son of Charles Isaac, a joiner and builder, and Mary Jane Liddell of 21 Rosebery Road, Stanwix. Charles was educated at Carlisle Grammar School and, at the outbreak of war, he was employed as a draughtsman with Cowans Sheldon, where he had worked for about eight years. He enlisted in September 1914 in the Howitzer Brigade and served in Gallipoli and Egypt before transferring to France in early 1917. In September of 1917 he was gassed but after two months in hospital he returned to the field initially in a different battery but after negotiations returned to his former battery. In a letter to his father, his commanding officer, explained that ‘he was killed by a shell whilst repairing a telephone line near the Battery position’ and went on to explain that ‘his particular work - a linesman- is at times dangerous and calls for a high standard of personal courage and endurance. Never has your son been known to hesitate or fail in his duty or to shrink from any personal danger’. Charles was awarded the Military Medal, posthumously, for a specific act of bravery. For additional information see The Stars at Night, p77.
Private Frederick Linton, of the 12th Battalion, Northumberland Fusiliers, was killed in action on 25 April 1918, aged 34. He is commemorated on the Tyne Cot Memorial, Zonnebeke, West-Vlandeeren, Belgium. Frederick, who was the fourth son of William, an agricultural labourer, and Mary Linton, 3 Eden Place, Stanwix, moved to Benwell on Tyne sometime before the 1911 census, at which time he was living with his wife Annie and son Frederick William at 98 Colston Street, Benwell. He was a timekeeper with the Corporation Tramways at Newcastle.
Corporal Joseph Little is described in the CWGC as originally of the 12 Battalion, Lincolnshire Regiment having transferred to the 17 Company Labour Corps. However, according to the war memorial in Stanwix Cemetery he served in the Northumberland Fusiliers and according to the family history website Find my Past he was Corporal, 10023, of the Labour Corps formerly 5782 Northumberland Fusiliers. What is certain is that he died of wounds, received in action, on 30 October 1917, aged 29, and is buried in Wimereux Communal Cemetery, Pas de Calais. Joseph was the youngest son of the late George, a gardener, and Mary Little of 2 Strawberry Terrace, Edentown, Carlisle. He was survived by his wife Isabella and a daughter; according to the CWGC, Isabella lived at the Pike, Nicholforest, Penton.
Gunner Tom Valentine Lowthian, of the Royal Garrison Artillery, died at Fort Pitt Hospital, Chatham, on 31 March 1918, aged 38, and is buried in Stanwix Cemetery, Carlisle. Tom was the husband of Annie Lowthian of Stanwix Bank, Carlisle and the fourth son of the late Isaac, a stonemason, from Plumpton near Penrith, and Isabella Lowthian of St Paul’s Square, Carlisle. He was described in an obituary in the Cumberland News of 16 April 1918 as having ‘enlisted over two years ago and served in France for upwards of 18 months, where he contracted an illness which resulted in his death. In pre-war days Gunner Lowthian was a traveller for Messrs Henderson, biscuit manufacturers, Edinburgh and before that acted for many years in a similar capacity for Mr Robinson, grocer, Shaddongate. He was a very active member of the Carlisle Socialist Party, and a keen worker on its behalf, especially at election times’.
Second Lieutenant Walter Maxwell, of the 1st Battalion, South Wales Borderers, died of heart failure, on active service, on 11 February 1918, and is buried in Bangalore (Hasar Road) Cemetery, India. He was 25 years old. Walter was the only son of the late William Frank Maxwell of Houghton and of Mary Maxwell of 105 Scotland Road, Stanwix. In the 1911 census he was described as having been born in Canonbie and being employed as an Auctioneer’s apprentice. A number of letters received by his mother are referred to in the Cumberland News of 27 April 1918 one of these, by a fellow officer, who had, originally, been in the Border Regiment with him, described him as being an authority in his special line of signalling. For additional information see The Stars of Night, p82.
Sergeant John Nixon McCulloch M.M., of ‘D’ Battery, 211th Brigade, Royal Field Artillery, was killed in action, on 4 November 1918, aged 28, and was buried at Capelle-Beaudignies Road Cemetery, France Nord. John was the younger son of the late Dr Charles McCulloch, Abbeytown, and Jane McCulloch of 10 Eden Place, Stanwix. He had joined the R.F.A. (Territorials), at the commencement of the new Territorial scheme, and served with them for ten years. He had joined up on the outbreak of war and at the time of his death, he had been in active service for four year and three months. He served in Egypt and Sinai as well as in France and took part in the defence of the Suez Canal and the capture of El-Arish. Early in 1918 he had been awarded the Military Medal for putting two Howitzer guns out of action under heavy shellfire. In writing to his mother, following his death, his Commanding Officer wrote:- ‘It occurred on the morning of November 4th, when the battery, was supporting the advance of our artillery. By his great act of bravery, which he shared with a number of others in sticking to his gun to the last, he made a name for the battery which will never be forgotten in Cumberland and is already widely known here’. In civilian life John was a well-known footballer, having played for the Carlisle Butchers and Eskdale Rovers. He had served his articles with G. J. Bell and Son, Land Agents, Lonsdale Street, Carlisle.
Private J. Mitchell, Border Regiment. He was probably the Alexander James Mitchell [further information needed] – possibly the Alexander James Mitchell, service number 21520, of the Second Battalion Border Regiment, killed in action of 19 April 1916. He was from Cleobury North, Bridgenorth, Shropshire but may have been living at 40 Etterby Street, Carlisle when he enlisted in May 1915.
Private Richard Mitchinson, of the 54th Battalion Canadian Infantry (Central Ontario Regiment), died, of wounds received in action, on 19 November 1916, aged 31, and is buried in Contay British Cemetery, Contay, Somme, France. In the death notice in the Cumberland News he was described as a Lance Corporal. He is also described as such on the Houghton and Kingmoor War Memorials. He was born on 19 January 1885 and enlisted at Saskoon, Canada on 11 April 1916, his occupation being given as homestead father. He was the son of the late William, a nursery foreman, and Margaret Mitchinson, 14 Hobart Terrace, Moorville, Carlisle. The family were formerly of Knowfield Cotttages, Stanwix.
Corporal Joseph Mooney, of the Royal Airforce, died at a military hospital in the South of England on 20 October 1918, aged 38, as is buried in Stanwix Cemetery, Carlisle. Joseph was the son of Mrs Sarah Mooney of 32 Church Street, Stanwix. At the time of the 1911 census he was working as a groom at stables in Whittington near Corbridge.
Corporal William Gardner Noble, of the 3rd Dragoon Guards (Prince of Wales Own), was killed in action at Hooge, near Ypres on 1st or 2nd June 1915, aged 39, and is commemorated on the Ypres (Menin Gate) Memorial. William was the husband of Norah Noble, née Bell, who he had married at Stanwix Church on 3 January 1909, and the son of the late Benjamin, wholesale and retail provision merchant of Carlisle, and Mary Noble. At the time of the 1911 census William and Norah and their daughter Alice were living at 2 Collin Place, Newtown, Carlisle and his occupation was given as warehouseman in a biscuit works. The address of his family at the time of his death has not been established. William had enlisted, on 24 March 1896, as a professional soldier with the Household Cavalry and Cavalry of the Line (inc. Yeomanry and Imperial Camel Corps) and served in India, two terms, and in the South Africa, where he had served at Mool River. He was discharged from the Army on 23 March 1908, after 12 years service. At the outbreak of war he rejoined his old regiment as a Private and three weeks later was promoted to Corporal. He acted as drill instructor at Canterbury until November when he went to the front and was transferred to the 3rd Dragoon Guards.
Rifleman John James Percival, of the 8th Battalion, London Regiment (Post Office Rifles), was killed in action on 23 September 1916, aged 37, and is buried at Millencourt British Cemetery Extension, Somme, France. John, a postman, was the husband of Alexandrina Corbett Percival, née Mathieson of 29 Eden Street, Edentown, Stanwix and the eldest son of George Alexander, a gardener, and Jessie Percival of 14 Cheviot Road, Stanwix. John and Alexandrina were married early in 1911. A joint memorial service to John, Allan George Condi (see above), and a Charles Alford was held in Stanwix Church.
Rifleman J.T. Percival (is he the same person included twice in error, – his regiment is given as London on the war memorial).
Private John William Pillans [J. W. Pilling on the war memorial], of the 11th Battalion Border Regiment died on 3rd July 1916, of wounds received on 1st July 1916, and is buried at Puchvillers British Cemetery, Somme, France. John was born at Brisco, near Carlisle, early in 1889 and at the time of the 1891 census he was living, at Brisco, with his mother Ann and his grandparents John, a gardener, and Ellen Grant. By 1911, when he was employed as a gardener in a nursery, he was living with his future parents-in-law, Jonathan and Isabella Watson at 9 St Martins Lane, Stanwix. On 11th November of 1911 he married Thomasina Watson at Carlisle Registry Office. A lengthy service record has survived and from this it is known that he joined the regiment on 3rd November 1914 and was transferred to the front a year later. On the 12th June 1916 he received accidental injuries which were the subject of a Court of Enquiry in the field. The circumstances are outlined in the following extract from a letter written on 17th June 1916: ‘On the 12th inst. when the Stokes Guns were bombarding “German Farm” Pte. Pillans was hit on the shoulder by a piece of metal’. It goes on to explain that it was originally decided that the injury did not require hospital treatment but on the following day the replacement Medical Officer sent him to 92nd Field Ambulance from where he was discharged on 16th June. The Court subsequently established that the piece of metal was part of the Stokes Gun and found that ‘no-one could be blamed for the accident’. John returned to duty on 16th June but did not survive long, probably, another Border Regiment casualty of the first day of the Battle of the Somme. A brief article in Cumberland News of 29th July 1916 records that Thomasina was living at 2 Hodgson’s Lane, Stanwix and that before joining the regiment John was employed, as a nurseryman, by Messrs Little and Ballantyne.
One possible reason for the misspelling on the War Memorial is that by June 1919 Thomasina had remarried and moved to Glasgow and the address of his half-sister Nellie Robinson was unknown.
Private John Porteous, of the 20th Battalion, The King’s (Liverpool Regiment), died of wounds received in action, caused by effects of gas, on 1 August 1916, aged 26, and is buried at Corbie Communal Cemetery Extension. John was the youngest son of James, a commercial traveller in drapery, and Jessie Porteous, of 47 Scotland Road, Stanwix. At the time of his enlistment at Liverpool, on 17 November 1914, his occupation was given as draper. By 1922 his only surviving close relative was his brother James, who was still living at 47 Scotland Road.
Private William Mather Porteous, of the 11th Battalion, Border Regiment, was killed in action on 18 November 1916, aged 27, and is buried at Waggon Road Cemetery, Beaumont-Hamel, Somme, France. William was the brother of John and the third son of James and Jessie Porteous of 47 Scotland Road, Stanwix. He enlisted soon after the outbreak of war and was formerly in the employ of W. H. Reeves, joiners, Stanwix.
Sapper Frederick Albert Robinson, of the L.R.W. Company, Royal Engineers, died suddenly, probably of Spanish Flu, on 18 January 1919, aged 30, and is buried in Etaples Military Cemetery, Pas de Calais. Fred, who at the time of the 1911 census was a railway engine fitter, was the dearly loved husband of Mary Ann née Peascod of 9 Scaurbank Road, Etterby and youngest son of the late Thomas, a railway engine driver, and Hannah of 5 Caledonian Buildings, Etterby Road.
Private John Scott, of the 13th Battalion, Cheshire Regiment, died from wounds received in action, on 12 August 1917, aged 27, and is buried in the Brandhoek New Military Cemetery, West-Vlaanderen, Belgium. John was the son of Margaret and the late William Scott, a farmer, of 13 Strawberry Terrace, Edentown, Carlisle and the grandson of John Scott of Kingstown, who had been the grocer and sub-postmaster at Kingstown. He served his apprenticeship with Holywells, grocers and tea merchants, of 48 English Street, Carlisle, and subsequently moved to Manchester from where he enlisted, initially, with the Shropshire Light Infantry.
Company Sergeant Major John Sewell, of the 11th Battalion, Border Regiment, was killed in action on 1 July 1916, aged 41, and is commemorated on the Thiepval Memorial, Somme, France. John, who was the husband of Florence May Sewell of 44 West Tower Street, Carlisle, was the eldest son of the late Robert Sewell, a house painter, and Esther Sewell of 9 Eden Terrace, Stanwix. He had served in the South Africa Campaign with the Border Regiment 34th-55th Foot. He attested on 16 January 1900 and was discharged on 6 May 1901. At the time of his attestation his occupation was given as house painter, having served a six year apprentice under his father. The Cumberland News, dated 15 July 1916, referred to a letter, which his mother had received from his brother Private A. Sewell, informing her that he ‘is missing and he is afraid he is dead’. John Sewell’s whereabouts between his discharge from the army in 1901 and his death on 1 July 1916 have not been established.
Private Robert James Sewell, of the 2nd Battalion, Border Regiment, died, at the Duchess of Westminster’s Hospital, Boulogne, on 25 January 1915, aged 20, from wounds received in action at Lys and is buried in Le Touquet-Paris Plage Communal Cemetery, Pas de Calais. Robert, who was a telegraph linesman with the GPO, prior to enlisting, was the eldest son of George, a cabinet maker, and Frances Sewell of 18 Kells Place, Stanwix. Only weeks before he died he had written a letter to his mother that included the following words: ‘Our regiment has had a terrible twisting about this last day or two, and as long as I live I shall never forget the terrible experiences I have had. I was hit four times in one day, but it didn’t draw blood. Am still alive yet’. A memorial service was held for him and Frank Somerville [see below] at Stanwix Church. Among those present was the Stanwix Company of the Boys Brigade of which Robert was formerly as member.
Private William Sinclair, of the 1st/9th Battalion, Manchester Regiment, was killed in action on 11 September 1917, aged 19, and is commemorated on the Tyne Cot Memorial, Jonnebeke, West-Vlaanderen, Belgium. William, who was born in Glasgow, was the younger son of William, a railway parcels agent, and Jane Sinclair of 34 Thornton Road, Stanwix. He was educated at Carlisle Grammar School. Prior to enlisting, on 8 December 1915, he was employed at the office of the Surveyor of Taxes, Victoria Place, Carlisle. He had originally enlisted in the 11th Battalion, Border Regiment but was later seconded to the Manchester Regiment. For additional information see The Stars of Night, p99.
Midshipman Frank Bousefield Somerville, Royal Naval Reserve, H.M.S. ‘Formidable’, died along with many other members of the crew of the battleship H.M.S. Formidable when it was sunk by a German torpedo, off Portland Bill, on 1 January 1915; he was 18 years old. He is commemorated on the Chatham Naval Memorial. Frank was the son of Michael Bousefield Somerville, a commercial traveller, and Mary Elizabeth Somerville, of Stoneleigh, 3 Carlton Gardens, Stanwix. He was educated at Carlisle Grammar School and after joining the Royal Naval Reserve was on a training ship in the Mersey. A memorial service was held for him and Robert Sewell [see above] at Stanwix Church. For additional information, including details of the sinking of H.M.S. Formidable see The Stars of Night, p100.
Private Joseph Steen, of the 8th Battalion, Border Regiment, was killed in action, at Etaples, on 24 or 25 July 1918, aged 32, and is buried in Etaples Military Cemetery, Pas de Calais. Joseph, a commercial traveller, was the husband of Lillian, née Dodds, whom he married at Stanwix Church on 9 March 1916, and father of James. The family lived at 11 Thornton Road, Stanwix. He was the elder son of Job, a bricklayer, and Margaret Steen of Southport.
Private Edgar Marsden Stewardson, 11th Battalion, Rifle Brigade (The Prince Consort’s Own), was confirmed as killed in action on 18 September 1916, aged 24, after having been previously reported as missing. He is commemorated on the Thiepval Memorial, Somme, France. Edgar was the son of John, a laundry manager, and Margaret Stewardson of Breezemount, Garden City, St Anns Hill, Stanwix, formerly of 13 Petteril Terrace, Carlisle. He was educated at Carlisle Grammar School. He was originally reported as missing in an article in the Cumberland News of 11 November 1916 and his death was confirmed in early December. According to the 11 November article, ‘He had been in Brigade since March last, after having previously endeavoured unsuccessfully to join the Border Regiment at Carlisle and another regiment at New Brighton. Formerly he assisted his father in the management of the Carlisle Steam Laundry, Warwick Road. Later he held an appointment at New Brighton, but at the time he enlisted in the Rifle Brigade he was deputy manager of Messrs Spears and Ponds’ laundry in London…’ See also The Stars of Night, p107.
Lieutenant Harold Vaughan Tattersall, of the 1st Battalion, North Staffordshire Regiment, died of wounds on 22 April 1918, aged 30, and is buried in Berlin South-Western Cemetery, Berlin. He was the son of Henry Vaughan Tattersall, manager of the Clydesdale bank, Carlisle, and Edith. Harold was seriously injured in the German offensive of March 1918; he was taken prisoner by the Germans and died soon after. The CWGC gives his parent’s address as Ryecroft, Paignton, which is probably where they moved after retirement. At the time of the 1911 census Harold senior and Edith were living in Marlborough Gardens in a house with 15 rooms and employing a cook and a domestic housemaid. Because he was a former pupil of Carlisle Grammar School a more detailed account of his life and service can be found in The Stars of Night, p109.
Private 1st Class Adolphus Charles Towill, of the Royal Air Force, died, of Broncho Pneumonia, in a military hospital on 24 July 1918, aged 42, and is buried in Vendome Town Cemetery, Loir et Cher, France. Charles was the second son of the late Frederick Henry Towill, who at the time of the 1891 census was a chemical manure and cake merchant, and Eliza P. Towill. At the time of his death his mother was living at 7 Mulcaster Crescent, Stanwix. According to his service record Charles was born on 15 October 1875 and at the time of his attestation, with the Royal Naval Air Service, on 27 September 1917, he was a commercial traveller.
Second Lieutenant Herbert Johnston Townson, of the Royal Air Force, attached to 15th Battalion West Yorkshire Regiment (Prince of Wales Own), was killed in action on 21 April 1918, aged 29, and is buried in Abbeville Communal Cemetery Extension, Somme, France. Herbert was the eldest son of John, a manager for a timber merchant, and Dinah Townson of 22 Scotland Road, Stanwix. A lengthy article in Cumberland News of 20 May 1918 included the following information: ‘He joined the colours in September 1914 as a Private with the West Yorkshire Territorial Regiment, and went out to France in February of the following year. He was in much of the fighting there and was twice wounded. [Once on the first day of the battle of the Somme]. He rose to the rank of sergeant and was recommended for a commission, which he obtained in early 1917…. Towards the end of  he was transferred to the Royal Flying Corps and after training in this country went out to France about six weeks ago…. He served his apprenticeship to banking in the head office of the Carlisle and Cumberland bank at Carlisle, and when still in his teens he obtained an appointment to the Bradford District bank at Bradford’. By the time he enlisted he was a cashier in the bank. He played rugby for Bradford Rugby Union Footbal Club and was also a keen tennis player. His final action has been described elsewhere as follows: ‘The last aircraft from 101 squadron did not land until 0310 Hrs and not all the crews got back unscathed. Observer 2nd Lieutenant Townson was killed this night after his aircraft (B453) had been hit by AA fire, although his pilot, Second Lieutenant A.C. Hynes, escaped unhurt. It was often noted that observers were usually older and more experienced than their pilots, which in this case was correct as Townson was twenty-nine years old’.
Private Ernest Nelson Wilkinson, of the Border Regiment, 7th (Westmorland and Cumberland Yeomanry) Battalion, died on 18 September 1918, aged 37, and is commemorated on the Vis en Artois memorial, Pas de Calais. Ernest was the son of Isaac, a solicitor’s clerk, and the late Elizabeth Wilkinson of 2 Mulcaster Crescent, Stanwix. By 1911, Ernest, who was born in Penrith, was living in Battersea. When he enlisted, on 11 December 1915, he was living at 48 Farnley Road, South Norwood and working as a clerk with the Board of Education. During his time in the army, he served with a number of battalions of the Border Regiment, bring posted to the 7th Battalion on 28 August 1918. He was appointed paid Lance Corporal on 15 July 1916 but reverted to Private nearly two years later at his own request.
Lieutenant John Scott Wills, of the 20th Battalion, Durham Light Infantry, was killed in action on 4 September 1918, aged 26, and is buried at Voormezeele Enclosure No 3, Leper, West-Vlaanderen, Belgium. John was the only son of the late George, a law clerk, and Mary Wills, of 7 Etterby Street, Stanwix. He was a former pupil of Grosvenor College and commenced his business career in the Aspatria branch of the Bank of Whitehaven and later served the bank at Whitehaven and Wigton from where he joined the Inns of Court Officer Training Corps. In his younger days he was an enthusiastic footballer and was in the Wigton Athletic team when they were cup winners in the 1910-1911 season. Shortly before he was killed he distinguished himself as a prize-winner in some sports behind the line. The Major of his regiment wrote to his mother that ‘He was killed instantly whilst bravely leading his platoon to the assault. His conduct was of the highest order and his death is a great blow to the Battalion…’.
Private A. Wylie, Ontario, [needs further research]. – Regiment given as Ontario on the war memorial. He was, possibly, the Gunner Archie J. Wylie, 7th Light Trench Mortar Battery, Canadian Artillery, service number 262232, who died on 30 October 1917, aged 18, and is commemorated on the Ypres (Menin Gate) Memorial. The CWGC gives his parents at Willis R. and Mary Olive Wylie. However, there is no apparent connection to Carlisle.
The following three soldiers, who are commemorated by Commonwealth War Graves, are interred in Stanwix Cemetery, but not included on the war memorial.
Private William Godfrey Calder, 2nd Battalion Argyll and Sutherland Highlanders, died, at Edinburgh War Hospital, Bangour, West Lothian, from wounds received in action, on 14 September 1916, aged 25, and is buried in Stanwix Cemetery. William was the son of Andrew, a commercial traveller, and Caroline Selina Calder, formerly of Etterby Scaur, Stanwix. He enlisted in 1915, having previously served for some years in the R.G.A. Territorial Force. When he enlisted he was living at The Cedars, Lockerbie Road, Dumfries. He was wounded in action on 27 August 1916, transferred home, and admitted to hospital, on 5 September, where he died nine days later. He was buried with military honours at Stanwix Cemetery. The coffin was met at Carlisle railway station by a number of men from the Border Depot, who walked in front of hearse to the Cemetery, The Rev. E. Booth, Pastor of the Lowther Street Congregational Church, officiated. At the conclusion of the service a volley was fired over the grave and the “Last Post” was sounded. William, who had been baptised at Stanwix Church on 26 April 1891, was educated at Grosvenor College, Carlisle, and Edinburgh University. He qualified as a dentist and prior to enlisting was in practice in Dumfries.
Private Norman Gough White, of the 2nd Battalion, Wellington Expeditionary Force, died of wounds on 9 August 1916, aged 21, and is buried in Stanwix Cemetery. Norman, who, according to the CWGC, was the son of Thomas W. White of 141 Devon Street, New Plymouth, New Zealand, was a plumber prior to enlisting. He embarked from Wellington, New Zealand, on 4 March 1916. He died from wounds at the Royal Infirmary, Leicester and was buried at Stanwix where his relatives lived.
The grave of Pte Norman Gough White,
"From the uttermost ends of the Earth", he lies now in the land of his ancestors.
Private Ernest Williamson, of B Company, 11th Battalion, Border Regiment, died at home of pneumonia on 28 May 1918, aged 21, and is interred in Stanwix Cemetery. John was the son of John William, a steam roller driver, and Isabella Williamson of 50 Charles Street, Carlisle. In the 1911 census Ernest’s occupation was given as errand boy for confectioner but, when he enlisted on 19 October 1914, he was working as a baker’s assistant in a biscuit factory. He served in France from 23 November 1915 until 21 November 1917. On the latter date he was sent home on the hospital ship Princess Elizabeth, suffering from pulmonary tuberculosis. A report in his service record, dated 21 November 1917, provides the following description of his illness: [He] ‘began five months ago to be troubled with shortness of breath and pain on the left side of the chest at times, cough especially at night. Did not however report sick until three weeks ago – when the breathlessness and cough had got much worse. Has been losing weight. The cause if his illness was given as ‘exposure on active service’. He was discharged on 28 December 1917. His military character was described as ‘good’ – ‘a sober well conducted man with a good record.
With thanks and appreciation of the work of Mr Ian Moonie who researched and compiled the information here.